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POWER SYSTEMS AND SUBSTATION PROTECTION SYSTEM

POWER GENERATION

  • Source of Energy.
  • Conventional source of energy. (Renewable energy resource.)
  • Non-conventional source of energy. (Non-renewable energy resource.)
  • Importance of Electrical energy
  • Generation of Electrical Energy
  • Power plant station
  • Types of power plant station
  • Advantages and disadvantages of power system
  • Coal Handling Plant
  • Fuel Processing Plant
  • Ash and Dust Plant
  • Boiler Water and Steam Components and Systems
  • Condensate and Feed water Heating Systems
  • Burner Management and Boiler Automatic Control Systems
  • Turbine Plant
  • Generator Plant
  • Turbine and Generator Control and Protection Systems
  • Cooling Water Systems
  • The Steam and Water Cycle
  • Power Plant Thermal Performance and Efficiency Losses

POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION

  • Electrical transmission system
    • High voltage DC transmission system.
    • High voltage AC transmission system.
  • Various systems of power transmission
    • Dc systems
    • Single phase AC system
    • Two phase AC system
    • Three phase AC system
  • Transmission substation.
    • Primary transmission
    • Secondary transmission
  • Parameters of transmission line.
    • Resistance
    • Capacitance
    • Inductance
  • Types of transmission line.
    • Short transmission line.
    • Medium transmission line.
    • Long transmission line.
  • Transmission line efficiency
  • Transmission line voltage
  • Effect of power factor on Transmission line
  • Performance of Transmission line
  • SAG
    • Sag in overhead transmission line conductors
    • Calculation of sag
    • Effect of ice and wind on SAG
  • Components of Transmission line
    • Supports
    • Conductors
      • ACSR
      • Bundle conductors
    • Protective devices
      • Insulators
      • Circuit breaker
      • Lightning arrester
      • relays
    • Cross arms
  • Economics of power transmission
  • Economics choice of conductor size.
  • Corona
    • Factors affecting corona.
    • Advantage and disadvantages of corona.
    • Methods reducing of corona

A.C.DISTRIBUTION

  • Primary distribution
  • Secondary distribution
  • Overhead versus underground distribution.
  • Connection schemes of distribution system.
    • Radial system.
    • Ring main system.
    • Interconnection system.
  • Requirement of a distribution system.
  • Design consideration in distribution system.
    • Feeders
    • Distributors

D.C. DISTRIBUTION

  • Type of dc distribution.
    • Distributor fed at one end.
    • Distributor fed at both end.
    • Distributor fed at the center.
    • Ring distributor.

SWITCHGEAR

  • Essential features of switchgear/li>
  • Switchgear equipment
    • Switches
    • Fuses.
    • Circuit breaker
    • Relays
  • BUS BAR ARRANGEMENTS
    • Single bus bar system
    • Single bus system with sectionalisation.
    • Duplicate bus bar system
  • Fault in power system.
    • Symmetrical.
    • Unsymmetrical.
  • Circuit Breakers
  • Classification of Circuit Breakers
    • Miniature or Plain Circuit Breaker
    • Oil Circuit Breaker
    • Air Circuit Breaker
    • Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6) Circuit Breaker.
    • Vacuum Circuit Breaker
  • Fuses
  • Types of Fuses
  • Low voltage fuse.
    • Semi enclosed rewire able fuse
    • High Rupturing Capacity (HRC) cartridge fuse
    • HRC fuse with tripping devices.
  • High voltage fuse.
    • Cartridge type.
    • Liquid type.
    • Metal Clad fuse.
  • Difference between Circuit Breaker and Fuse.
  • Protective Relays
  • Types of operating principle of relays.
    • Electromagnetic Attraction
    • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Relay Timing
  • Functional Relay types
    • Induction type over current relays
    • Induction type reverse power relays
    • Distance relays
    • Differential relays
  • Protection of Transformers
    • Protection System for transformers.
    • Buchholz relay
  • Voltage Surge
    • Causes of over voltage
    • Lighting
    • Types of lightning arrestor
    • Protection against lightning
  • Types of lightning arrestor
  • Surge absorber
  • Grounding or Earthing
    • Equipment
    • System Grounding
    • Neutral Grounding
    • Solid Grounding
    • Resistance Grounding

HEALTH AND SAFETY REQUIREMENT IN POWER PLANT SUBSTATION.

  • ELECTRICAL SAFETY PROCEDURES AND MANUALS:
    • Indian Electricity rules.
    • The safety systems & procedures.
    • Accident prevention methods.
    • Safety codes and practices and lack thereof.
    • Safety gadgets and PPEs
  • ACCIDENT PREVENTION TECHNIQUES AND ROLE OF TECHNICIANS:
    • Recording and reporting systems
    • Review and methods to avoid recurrence.
    • JSA and Accident Analysis.
    • Technicians prone to accidents.
  • REPORTING SYSTEMS FOR OCCURRENCE OF ACCIDENTS, IMPLEMENTATION OF PREVENTIVE MEASURES & REVIEWS:
    • Reports filling details etc.
    • Investigation reports.
    • Steps to avoid recurrence.
    • Review.
    • Implementation.
  • DISASTER MANAGEMENT:
    Disaster & impacts warning systems & response management & mitigation –Manauls:
    • Institutional set up for disaster management.
    • Impact of different types of disasters.